On Chlorophyte

Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally calledchlorophytes. The name is used in two very different senses so that care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants (Viridiplantae), and thus includes about 7,000species of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryoticorganisms. Like the land plants (bryophytes andtracheophytes), green algae contain chlorophylls a and b, and store food as starch in their plastids.In newer classifications, it refers to one of the two cladesmaking up the Viridiplantae, which are the chlorophytes and the streptophytes or charophytes. In this sense it includes only about 4,300 species.

Green colour from chlorophyll a and b in the same proportions as the ‘higher’ plants; beta-carotene (a yellow pigment); and various characteristic xanthophylls (yellowish or brownish pigments). Food reserves are starch, some fats or oils like higher plants. Green algae are thought to have the progenitors of the higher green plants but there is currently some debate on this point.

Green algae may be unicellular (one cell), multicellular (many cells), colonial (living as a loose aggregation of cells) or coenocytic (composed of one large cell without cross-walls; the cell may be uninucleate or multinucleate). They have membrane-bound chloroplasts and nuclei. Most green are aquatic and are found commonly in freshwater (mainly charophytes) and marine habitats (mostly chlorophytes); some are terrestrial, growing on soil, trees, or rocks (mostly trebouxiophytes). Some are symbiotic with fungi giving lichens. Others are symbiotic with animals, e.g. the freshwater coelentrate Hydra has a symbiotic species of Chlorella as does Paramecium bursaria, a protozoan. A number of freshwater green algae (charophytes, desmids and Spirogyra) are now included in the Charophyta (charophytes), a phylum of predominantly freshwater and terrestrial algae, which are more closely related to the higher plants than the marine green algae belonging to the Chlorophyta (known as chlorophytes). Other green algae from mostly terrestrial habitats are included in the Trebouxiophyceae, a class of green algae with some very unusual features.

Asexual reproduction may be by fission (splitting), budding, fragmentation or by zoospores (motile spores). Sexual reproduction is very common and may be isogamous (gametes both motile and same size); anisogamous (both motile and different sizes – female bigger) or oogamous (female non-motile and egg-like; male motile). Many green algae have an alternation of haploid and diploid phases. The haploid phases form gametangia (sexual reproductive organs) and the diploid phases form zoospores by reduction division (meiosis). Some do not have an alternation of generations, meiosis occurring in the zygote. There are about 8,000 species of green algae, about 1,000 of which are marine chlorophytes and the remainder freshwater charophytes. Unfortunately, just because algae are green no longer means that they are related: two major aggregation of green algae, the Chlorophyta and the Charophyta have turned out not be remotely related to each other.

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